Lawmakers at Odds Over Polar Satellite System Overhaul

first_imgA section of a bill passed last night by the House of Representatives expresses support for President Barack Obama’s plan to restructure the bloated environmental satellite system known as NPOESS into two sister satellite programs run independently by civilian and military officials. That puts NASA’s authorizers—who supposedly set policy and lay out how the executive branch can spend money—at odds with Senate appropriators, who earlier this month called for the Defense Weather Satellite System, the new Pentagon program, to be defunded. I write “supposedly” since often the appropriators, who actually hold the purse strings, can “authorize” programs by funding them, and agencies tend to listen closely to them since they hold power over their budgets. It won’t be until the expected mega-spending bill known as the Omnibus passes—some time after the November elections—that the fate of the two programs will be clear. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

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Quake Question #8: What Impact Will the Radiation Have on Marine Life?

first_img For a complete list of quake questions and answers, see our Quake Questions page. For our complete coverage of the crisis in Japan, see our Japanese Earthquake page. Readers ask: Since it seems the radiation will mainly head out to sea, what will its effects be on ocean life? Science answers: Effects on marine life should be minimal if the plume is blown over the ocean. Radioactive isotopes are most dangerous when animals’ bodies absorb them, thinking they’re something else. For instance, cesium-137 mimics potassium and is absorbed by muscles, while strontium-90 mimics calcium and is taken up by bones. Since ocean water is full of potassium and calcium in the form of salts, this lowers the chance of an animal’s body taking up radioactive particles by mistake. Furthermore, since the Pacific is so massive, radioactivity will be diluted to levels far too low to be toxic to aquatic life. A much bigger concern is the plume blowing over land and contaminating plant life or the freshwater supply, which would affect animals (including humans) further up the food chain. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

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Video: X-rays Paint Whole-Cell Portraits

first_imgCredit: Carolyn Larabell, Mark Le Gros, and Markko MyllysVANCOUVER, CANADA—Imagine photographing every seed in a watermelon without cutting a single slice. Scientists can use x-rays to create similar internal portraits of whole cells, they reported here this morning at the annual meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (which publishes ScienceNOW). Like performing a cellular CT scan, researchers rapidly freeze a cell and snap its x-ray image once every 100 milliseconds. They can reconstruct an entire cell from 90-200 images in about 5 minutes. Using the differing light-absorption properties of organelles—the cell’s functional structures—the scientists can automatically identify and color-code this inner machinery, like in the T cell shown above (the nucleus is bright blue, mitochondria are pink, and lysosomes are yellow). Researchers can use the technique to count and calculate the volume of organelles, and even measure how much hemoglobin malarial parasites consume inside red blood cells. Peering inside a whole cell without the laborious slicing and staining of electron microscopy makes x-ray imaging quick, quantitative, and decidedly less mess.See more VideosFull coverage of AAAS 2012Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)last_img read more

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Tropical Medicine Researcher to Lead Wellcome Trust

first_img Wellcome Library, London Infectious diseases researcher Jeremy Farrar will take over the reins at the Wellcome Trust, the United Kingdom’s most important private funder of medical research. Farrar is now heading the Oxford University Clinical Research Unit in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, where he has done research on drug resistance in tuberculosis and other diseases. The trust announced today that he will become director on 1 October. Farrar is “an extraordinary guy”, says Nicholas White, a malaria researcher at the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom and Mahidol University in Bangkok, who set up the Vietnam lab in 1991 and has known Farrar for almost 18 years. “He understands science and he understands people,” says White, who praises the Wellcome Trust for picking him. “It’s a very important job not just for U.K. science but for global medical research. Very few people have the ability to do it well and he is one of them.” Farrar succeeds Mark Walport, who had left the post in March to become the U.K. government’s chief science adviser. The Wellcome Trust, established in 1936 from the estate of pharmaceutical magnate Henry Wellcome, is an independent charity that funds biomedical research. Endowed with more than $22 billion, it spends about $1 billion annually. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Farrar, who now receives funding from the Wellcome Trust, has been intimately involved with some of the most dreaded viruses. In 2003, he lost a good friend, Italian parasitologist Carlo Urbani of the World Health Organization’s Hanoi office, to SARS. In January 2004, he was part of a team of researchers that diagnosed the first human case of H5N1 avian influenza in Vietnam. In recent weeks, he has collaborated in an effort to analyze travel patterns between China and the rest of the world, which may help predict how the novel H7N9 influenza virus might spread if it becomes pandemic. In the statement released by the trust, Farrar calls his future employer “one of the world’s outstanding philanthropic institutions and one of the UK’s most remarkable national assets.” “As a scientist who is grateful to have received Trust funding for my own work, I know first-hand how its flexible support makes such achievements possible,” he said. Neuropharmacologist David Nutt, who has worked as the U.K. government’s drug adviser, says that although he doesn’t know Farrar personally, the appointment is “clearly good news for infectious diseases research and the global influence of the Wellcome Trust. … One hopes that he will put his great enthusiasm to the broader research portfolio.” William Castell, chair of the Wellcome Trust, praised Farrar in a statement as “one of the foremost scientists of his generation, whose work—much of it funded by the Trust—has contributed to better understanding, surveillance, prevention and treatment of diseases including emerging infections, influenza, tuberculosis, typhoid and dengue.” Ted Bianco, the trust’s director of technology transfer, will continue to serve as acting director until October. London calling. Farrar, who currently leads a research group in Ho Chi Minh City, has been named director of the Wellcome Trust.last_img read more

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New Times, New Ties

first_imgIndia-US defence bill will be closely watched by Pakistan and China. It’s now beyond the shadow of a doubt that the US is investing in a long-term strategic partnership with India, and has identified China’s growing military assertiveness as a threat. Related Itemslast_img

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Isolated tribespeople receiving care after violent contact in Brazil

first_imgIn the wake of several encounters, Brazilian government workers are tending to 21 formerly isolated Korubo people in a remote corner of the Brazilian Amazon. A recent statement by the National Indian Foundation (FUNAI), the Brazilian agency charged with protecting indigenous peoples, reports that settled Matis villagers had attacked Korubo last December, leaving at least eight dead. The killings apparently were in revenge, as Korubo had killed two Matis a few days earlier. Most recently, in late September and October, a group of Matis—indigenous people who settled down in the 1970s—deliberately contacted Korubo near the Matis village of Tawaya on the Branco River. FUNAI officials arrived in Tawaya in September and have been caring for the Korubo since then, according to the statement.The tragic events are fueling ongoing debate about how to manage the process of contact between isolated and settled indigenous people. FUNAI’s policy is one of no contact unless initiated by the isolated group, but anthropologist Robert Walker of the University of Missouri, Columbia, says the deaths are “a good example of why the ‘leave them alone’ strategy doesn’t work.” Anthropologist Barbara Arisi of the Federal University of Latin American Integration in Foz de Iguaçu, Brazil, says the hands-off policy has advantages, but should be more flexible, allowing for rapid response in emergencies. But FUNAI officials and others have argued that a no-contact policy is vital to the health and self-determination of isolated people.The most recent events, which occurred in the Vale do Javari indigenous territory, are the latest in a series of sometimes-hostile encounters between Matis and isolated Korubo that began in December 2014, when a group of isolated Korubo killed two Matis men. The killings were triggered by the death of a newborn Korubo baby and the Matis’ refusal to give objects to the Korubo, according to the FUNAI statement. After the two men were killed, the Matis requested permission to establish contact with the Korubo, according to a letter from the Matis indigenous association to the Brazilian attorney general’s office. But the Korubo’s hostility suggested a rejection of outsiders rather than a wish to contact them, according to the FUNAI statement.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)So instead of contact, FUNAI helped the Matis village relocate to another area in order to prevent conflict. The agency flew over the region in an effort to map the area being used by the Korubo. After the overflights, however, Matis villagers attacked the Korubo, and at least eight Korubo died, according to the statement.Then, in September, a group of Matis encountered isolated Korubo near the Matis village of Tawaya and took them to Tawaya to live. A week later, on 7 October, the Matis contacted a second group of 11 Korubo, including four children, two infants, and a pregnant woman, and took them to join the first group, according to the FUNAI statement. A team from FUNAI and the Health Ministry’s indigenous health service arrived in Tawaya on 29 September and began to care for the 21 Korubo, some of whom were survivors of the December attack. At this time, FUNAI learned of the earlier Korubo deaths, according to the statement. FUNAI issued a public statement on the September contact and previous deaths in November, after a Brazilian website published an account of the events.In September, health workers moved the Korubo to a camp farther from the Matis village, to protect against illnesses to which they have no natural resistance. For isolated people, even a case of flu can be deadly. Several outbreaks of respiratory illnesses reportedly have occurred in the camp, but Health Ministry reports indicated that they were controlled. A baby also was born there, according to Douglas Rodrigues, a physician and public health expert at the Federal University of São Paulo in Brazil.Acute respiratory illnesses are common in cases of initial contact, and are the most common cause of death from contact, said Rodrigues, who has provided medical care in five cases of initial contact. Recommendations include making sure health teams are disease free before they enter an area, treating illnesses, and vaccinating newly contacted people, giving priority to flu, measles, and hepatitis B, he said.  The area where the December encounter occurred was historically occupied by both the Matis and the Korubo, who had a history of sporadic contact, says Arisi, who has studied the Matis. The Matis themselves settled down in the 1970s; in 1996, they assisted FUNAI in making first contact with one group of Korubo, a contact FUNAI initiated in order to protect the Korubo from incursions by outsiders (see photo).After decades of sparse contact with isolated peoples, encounters are happening more rapidly in Brazil and Peru. The encounter in September was the fifth initial contact in Brazil in less than 2 years. Rodrigues and other experts fear there could be more such cases in the future, as dams, highways, mines, and other development projects planned for the Amazon encroach on indigenous territories. Some question whether FUNAI, which has suffered budget and personnel cuts in recent years, will be able to manage potential encounters; others, such as Walker, argue that it is appropriate to initiate contact in some circumstances.  Although Brazil has the largest number, isolated groups also live in Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, and the Chaco region of Paraguay. The forest along the border between Brazil and Peru, where the Rio do Javari indigenous territory is located, is home to the largest concentration of isolated people in the world. The border is a hot spot for illegal logging, and drug traffickers ship cocaine from Peru to Brazil along the rivers. Illegal fishing of ornamental fish for the aquarium trade has also been reported. Although FUNAI has a guard post at one key point of entry to the Javari reserve, loggers and fishermen enter along other rivers, according to anthropologists who have worked in the area. The Rio do Javari indigenous territory, which covers an area nearly the size of South Carolina, was officially established in 2001 to protect isolated groups. It is home to about 4500 people who are in contact with the outside world, as well as two groups in recent contact and 16 that still avoid contact, according to FUNAI.last_img read more

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Vaginal bacteria species can raise HIV infection risk and undermine prevention

first_imgThe makeup of a woman’s vaginal microbiome strongly influences her susceptibility to HIV infection, suggest studies presented in Durban, South Africa, today at the kickoff of the weeklong 21st International AIDS Conference. The microbiome can also explain why pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)—giving anti-HIV drugs to prevent infection—works better in men than in women. These findings have particular relevance here in South Africa’s KwaZulu-Natal province, which has perplexingly high levels of HIV infection in teenage girls and young women.At a press conference today, two related studies were described that researchers will report on Tuesday. “It’s a great story, and it’s a really important insight into why young women in Africa are getting infected at such high rates,” says Douglas Kwon, an immunologist at Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston who was not involved with the work but has studied the vaginal microbiome and HIV.The new findings all come from follow-up studies of women who participated in a PrEP study of a vaginal gel that contained the anti-HIV drug tenofovir. Conducted by the Centre for the AIDS Programme of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) based in Durban, the trial took place in a region where 66% of 30-year-old women are infected. The CAPRISA team made headlines in 2010 when it showed that the gel reduced a woman’s risk of infection by 44%. But encouraging as that result was, it also raised questions about why the gel wasn’t more effective—and it indeed failed in a subsequent trial.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)The most provocative of the two new studies carefully analyzed the vaginal microflora in 119 women who were HIV negative at the trial’s start, and compared the 49 who became infected with the others. In a previous study of women in this trial, CAPRISA researchers and their collaborators at the University of Cape Town in South Africa reported last year that women who had increased genital tract inflammation were more likely to become infected. Monkey studies suggested a mechanism: Inflammation brings more of HIV’s favorite target, CD4 white blood cells, to the mucosal surface. And in a separate study of women in KwaZulu-Natal, Kwon and colleagues reported last year that inflammation in the vagina is linked to a decrease in Lactobacillus, a species—famously found in yogurt—that creates an acidic environment inhospitable to many pathogens. As the researchers noted but could not explain, Lactobacillus dominated in the vaginas of only 37% of the women they studied, compared with 90% of white women in the United States.Until now, however, no one had clearly linked specific vaginal microbiomes to an increased risk of HIV infection. “Now we have actual data,” says CAPRISA’s director, epidemiologist Salim Abdool Karim.The data come from a massive effort to identify bacterial species on vaginal swabs from the women in the CAPRISA tenofovir gel study. Ian Lipkin’s lab at Columbia University, which specializes in finding rare pathogens, extracted some 25,000 sequences of bacterial ribosomal RNA from each swab and used the genomic data to identify a total of 1368 species.One relatively rare species, Prevotella bivia, stood out as particularly harmful. Women whose vaginal microbiome included more than 1% of P. bivia had the highest levels of genital inflammation and the highest likelihood of becoming infected with HIV. These women had markedly reduced levels of Lactobacillus, and the researchers showed that P. bivia was associated with high levels of an inflammation-promoting compound called lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Earlier in vitro studies have shown that P. bivia growth leads to high levels of LPS, which make up the cell wall of the bacteria, and the LPS, in turn, stimulates production of inflammatory chemical messengers.Women who had greater than 1% P. bivia were nearly 13 times more likely to become infected by HIV.In the second study, of vaginal washings from 688 women in the same CAPRISA trial, Adam Burgener from the Public Health Agency of Canada in Winnipeg and Nichole Klatt of the University of Washington, Seattle, showed that the vaginal microbiome doesn’t just influence infection risk; it can also directly interfere with PrEP. In women whose microbiome contained less than 50% Lactobacilli, the tenofovir gel protected only 18% of the women who received it. The efficacy jumped to 61% when the proportion of Lactobacillus species was above 50%. And when the researchers mixed various bacteria with tenofovir in the lab, they found that drug levels remained high in the presence of Lactobacilli but dropped by half when mixed with a bacterium called Gardnerella, which flourishes when Lactobacilli are scarce. “Gardnerella gobbles it up,” Karim says.Anthony Fauci, head of the U.S. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases in Bethesda, Maryland, says these findings open the possibility of manipulating the vaginal microbiome to help head off HIV infections in vulnerable young women. Antibiotics, for example, could knock back Gardnerella or Prevotella. Or introducing helpful bacteria—so-called probiotics—could “crowd out” the dangerous bacteria. “When I saw those data I thought if this pans out, it seems like a relatively low tech way to make an impact on whether you get infected or not,” Fauci says.Kwon cautions that efforts to manipulate the microbiome to treat inflammatory diseases of the gut have had limited success. “We know from the gut that manipulating these communities is often extremely difficult,” he says. “There are a lot of host mechanisms to maintain those communities.”But Fauci is more optimistic. The vaginal vault has far less susceptible tissue than the gut, he points out. “You’re talking inches rather than feet,” he says. “This is an interesting issue that needs to be pursued.”last_img read more

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Ancient lizardlike creature bridged gap between land and sea

first_img By Sid PerkinsNov. 7, 2017 , 7:01 PM This beautifully preserved, nearly complete fossil is shedding new light on the evolution of the aquatic members of a small, enigmatic group of ancient reptiles called pleurosaurs. The bones belong to a new species of pleurosaur whose anatomical features weren’t fully adapted to water, but were on the way to enabling an aquatic lifestyle. The creature (which the scientists dubbed Vadasaurus, Latin for “wading lizard”) lived 155 million years ago and didn’t have the elongated trunk or relatively shorter limbs that later aquatic species of pleurosaurs did, the researchers report today in Royal Society Open Science. So, Vadasaurus would have been less streamlined overall than its aquatic kin, they suggest. But other features, such as the shape of its skull and the shape and placement of its nostrils, hint that some aspects of the creature were indeed becoming more adapted to an aquatic lifestyle. Also, bones throughout its body were less mineralized and thus lighter than those of its landlubber kin—a shift that possibly aided buoyancy and reduced the energy needed to stay afloat when foraging. Overall, comparing Vadasaurus’s features with those of earlier and later pleurosaurs may provide scientists with insights about how evolution might have progressed among other, totally separate lineages of ancient creatures that also undertook the land-to-sea transition, including ichthyosaurs and mosasaurs, marine reptiles that swam the seas worldwide during large portions of the dinosaur era.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) Mick Ellison/AMNH center_img Ancient lizardlike creature bridged gap between land and sealast_img read more

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No more pancake syrup? Climate change could bring an end to sugar maples

first_img Savor that sticky, slightly nutty sweetness drenching your Sunday morning pancakes now. The trees that make maple syrup will struggle to survive climate change, a new study reveals. Researchers had thought that pollution from cars, factories, and agriculture might buffer sugar maples against an increasingly warm and dry climate by supplying soils with fertilizing nitrogen. But the new analysis, which examined 20 years of tree and soil data in four Michigan locations, finds that extra boost of nitrogen won’t be enough. Instead, the researchers report today in Ecology, a lack of water will stunt the trees’ growth. They ran two climate change scenarios specific to the region. In one case, driven by a decrease in carbon dioxide emissions, temperature would change moderately, by less than 1°C over the next century. In the second, more extreme case based on current emission trends continuing into the future, temperature would rise by more than 5°C, and 40% less rain would fall in the summer. In both scenarios, the trees didn’t grow as much as they do now, but tree growth in the second scenario nearly stopped, even with a bump from extra nitrogen. The researchers say sugar maples will eventually disappear if conditions from the second case hold true. Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*) istock.com/CAP53 By Roni DenglerJan. 17, 2018 , 11:15 AMcenter_img No more pancake syrup? Climate change could bring an end to sugar mapleslast_img read more

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